|13. The scope
of the work involved in
We have previously defined Participative Governance. We have also assessed the
economic and the social conditions prevailing nowadays in Lebanon. From that review it
appears that a great deal remains to be done in the following areas: infrastructure
development, social justice, fiscal reform, management of public funds and economic
The implementation of the reforms will involve planning, approval, implementation,
monitoring, and evaluation
If we accept the definition of Participative Governance as” mutually beneficial relations
between citizens and decision-makers”, it follows that citizens can and should participate
with the Authorities and assist them to implement the desired reforms.
Let us consider the areas of the work in which the citizens are expected to be involved:
• Planning: Civil Society can and should take an active part in the study and in the
elaboration of the National Plan and the Yearly National Budgets to make sure that they
fulfill all the major expectations of the citizens that we mentioned earlier on. But there are
other reasons as well. The citizens ought to ensure that any major project is realistic, well
studied, and does not contain elements that may favor certain individuals or special
interests to the detriment of other members of Society.
• Approval: The Plans and the major projects introduced by the Authorities must be
approved by Parliament before they are executed. Members of Civil Society should be
allowed to discuss these projects with the parliamentary commission concerned before
the voting takes place.
• Implementation: The implementation of the Plan is generally the exclusive domain
of the Authorities except when the latter decide to delegate a project to Private Enterprise
(PPP). In such cases the Administration limits its involvement to awarding the project and
supervising its execution.
• Monitoring and evaluation: This means making sure that the project gets actually
done, done well, and done on time. Considering that, in the past, many essential
projects have been badly executed or simply shelved aside, it is highly recommended that
Civil Society should be associated with the tasks of monitoring and evaluation, in
coordination with the appointed Parliamentary Commission.
Note: In this presentation the term Plan is used to denote the National Budget (
which is a yearly plan) and the National Plan (which is generally drawn for several years
ahead ;in most cases five years).