|31. DEFINITION OF
In the previous presentations we have come to the conclusion that, in many countries of the
world, governments are calling on their citizens to participate with them, in one way or another, in
the governance process.
countries like the Philippines, Brazil and South Africa.
conducted by the World Bank that can be accessed at:
and develop without proper planning and forethought. The same principle applies to
communities large and small. The larger the community grows, the more complex its
management becomes, and the greater is the need for efficient and shared planning. We can
then logically conclude that good planning is the fundamental requisite of good governance.
a period of several months and covers all the economic and the social aspects and activities of
the country for which the National Plan is elaborated.
We contend that citizens' participation can also be an essential condition for the successful
design and implementation of a National Plan.
To substantiate our assertion we shall provide, as an example, the case of the Republic of
Ireland where the citizens were called in to participate in the elaboration of five successive
National Development Plans (NDP) over a period of twenty years, from 1990 to 2010.
As a result of the implementation of this participative planning policy, the country's GDP shot up
spectacularly during that period and the Republic of Ireland came to be known as the Tiger of
the European Union.
But most significantly, and as a result of the active participation of the citizens in the planning
process, that economic growth was spread evenly and was not restricted to certain segments of
the population, or certain sectors of the economy. Its effects benefited everyone, and in particular
the low income citizens, the underprivileged, the children, the poor, and the old.
planning and governance has been the major cause of the revolutions that are nowadays
spreading at astounding speed throughout the entire Middle East
the past in a thoughtful, fair, and inclusive manner, and associating their citizens to these
We should weigh these considerations very carefully in Lebanon, lest we suffer the same fate
that has befallen them.
in political maneuvers and gesticulations, they should get together instead and proceed to plan
and improve this country's governance, or risk suffering their people's wrath.
A. Social Policy planning
3. Poverty eradication
2. Water supply and distribution
3. Electricity supply and distribution
4. Environment protection
5. Roads construction
6 Public transport
2. National Debt reduction
A definition of planning
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or more detailed plans to achieve optimum balance of needs or
demands with the available resources. The planning process::
(1) identifies the goals or objectives to be achieved,
(2) formulates strategies to achieve them,
(3) arranges or creates the means required,
(4) identifies the individuals or the organizations who will be involved
in the process.
(4) implements, directs, and monitors all steps in their proper